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No-fault restrictions on pain-and-suffering lawsuits

Tort FL HI KS KY MA MI MN NJ* NY ND PA** UT
Death Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes   Yes
Dismemberment   Yes Yes Yes     Yes Yes Yes Yes   Yes
Loss of bodily function Yes Yes Yes   Yes Yes   Yes Yes      
Serious disfigurement Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes   Yes
Permanent injury or disability Yes   Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes   Yes
Fracture         Yes       Yes      
Serious fracture     Yes Yes Yes     Yes Yes      
Temporary disability or loss of earning capacity   Yes         Yes   Yes Yes    
Dollar threshold
C=Choice V=Verbal
V $5K $2K $1K $2K V $4K C or V V C C $3K
Source: American Insurance Association
                         
                         

Note: "Yes" indicates that recovery of pain and suffering damages is allowed. Dollar threshold means the amount of injury at which you can begin to sue for damages.

* In New Jersey, policyholders have the option to choose a standard policy (choice) or a basic policy (verbal). The standard policy allows you choose whether you want to sue for damages, regardless of the severity. The basic policy allows you to sue for pain and suffering if you are injured in one of the categories labeled "Yes" in the table above. The New Jersey definitions for "verbal" and "choice" apply to Michigan, New York, and North Dakota.

** Limited tort option: No recovery for noneconomic damages unless injuries are "serious" as set forth in the policy; in general, only coverage for medical and other out-of-pocket expenses. Full tort option: May recover for pain and suffering as a result of injuries caused by other driver(s) in addition to all medical and other out-of-pocket expenses.

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